It’s estimated that one in 20 Americans over the age of 50 has PAD and between 12 and 20 percent of Americans age 65 and older suffer from the disease though many are “silent” cases that don’t have symptoms.
- Cramping or tiredness in leg muscles while walking or exercising (claudication) which goes away at rest
- Pain in the legs or feet that wakes you up at night
- Numbness or loss of sensation in the affected limb
- Sores that heal slowly or fail to heal
- Differences between limbs in relation to color and/or warmth
- Decreased rate of hair and nail growth on the impacted limb
- Foot pain at rest
In some patients the vascular system may compensate for the reduced blood flow by forming alternative routes, called collateral vessels, which bypass the affected vasculature. In others, collateral vessels may not be sufficient, resulting in foot pain at rest and non-healing sores on the feet.
- High cholesterol or triglycerides
- Family history of vascular disease, such as PAD, aneurysm, heart attack or stroke
- Personal history of hypertension (high blood pressure), heart disease or other vascular disease
- High levels of homocysteine, an amino acid in your blood
- Weighing over 30 percent more than your ideal weight
- Over age 50 and male
- Inactive lifestyle
In at least half of all strokes the reason why the blood vessels become damaged in the first place is because they have been exposed to high blood pressure. If in addition the patient smokes, drinks heavily, is overweight, takes too much salt in his diet, or has heart disease or diabetes the risk of stroke is increased. A number of other factors are suspected, but there is no single cause of stroke.
Unfortunately anyone can suffer a stroke at any time, although the risks can be substantially reduced by a healthy life style, including the avoidance of smoking, and especially by having blood pressure checked and if it is too high, ensuring that it is kept under control by treatment.
Almost all oncology patients will cross paths with an Interventional Radiologist at some point during their treatment regimen. Depending on the type of cancer, an Interventional Radiologist may become one of your primary physicians or serve as a consultant to your oncologist or surgeon. Transarterial Chemoembolization (TACE): TACE is used to treat liver tumors, both primary hepatocellular carcinoma and secondary, or metastatic liver lesions. The procedure involves placement of a small catheter into the blood vessel of the groin, which is then threaded through the blood vessels into the liver using video fluoroscopy (real-time x-ray). Contrast dye is injected through the catheter to define the anatomy and location of the tumor. Once the blood vessels are mapped properly, a mixture of concentrated chemotherapy is injected through the catheter and directly into the blood vessels that feed the tumor. To help concentrate the chemotherapy, microspheres (or basically grains of sand) are injected into the same vessels that feed the tumor to block any further blood flow to tumor. This serves to not only trap the chemotherapy mixture in the tumor but also to deprive the tumor of oxygen and nutrients it needs to grow, thus hopefully both treating and killing the tumor. Afterwards, a patient will have to lay flat for 4-6 hours and is typically admitted overnight to the hospital for monitoring for about 24-36 hours.